Never pet a burning dog.
Like any industry, printing and graphics have developed its own special language meant to keep outsiders away. In this article, I will reveal the secret terminology that, if you study hard, will allow you to pass as someone who knows something about the trade. Heck, it worked for me. Here we go:
CMYK – Perhaps the most ubiquitous term in printing and graphic, CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. Wait, whut? you might rightfully quizzle? Why “K” and not “B” for Black? There are competing theories for the development of this term and both hold a logic that makes good sense. Some say the “K” stands for “key colour”, since on a printing press, each ink is in its own printing unit with all other inks registering or “keying” (get it?) to Black. The other idea is that the letter K is used to avoid confusion with B for Blue, Brown or some other ink that starts with “B”. “K” is the exclusive designation in printing technology for black ink that’s used in four-colour process printing.
LPI, DPI, Pixels, Dots – Oh, my, what big picas you have. I’ve heard non-printers refer to the dots seen in offset printing as pixels. This sort-of makes sense in the way that the dots on a computer display are similar to printed dots in that they represent tone or colour to the human viewing the art. Except that printed dots are much smaller, are not in RGB (video display dots always are), are not in fixed positions in a grid (like on a video monitor) and don’t change the perceived colour by varying intensity of three dots (which is how RGB monitors work). Since there’s no such thing as an RGB printing press, the dots on an offset printed piece vary in size to show more or less of a particular colour, usually arranged in a pattern called a rosette for four-colour printing.
RGB – Red, Green, Blue. These are the colours of the video rainbow. There is no such thing as an RGB press. RGB is a colour mode that is used for digital images that display on a colour monitor or video display device. RGB has a much larger gamut than CMYK, so colours can appear richer and more saturated when viewed in this mode.
Gamut – This is the range of colours that can be reproduced in a given colour systems. CMYK can reproduce about 65% of the Pantone 1000. Add OGV (Orange-Green-Violet) inks and that number goes up to about 90%. So, gamut is the range of reproduction of a given colour system.
Contone – Short for continuous tone, this is a reproduction or display method that has no dots, like in offset printing, where all steps from 100% colour to no colour are fully reproduced without interruption. Most contract proofs today are contone proofs.
Contract Proof – This is a colour-accurate, controlled output proof that a print buyer can view under controlled lighting conditions that can be used as a “target” for printing. The proof represents the ability of the target printing system to reproduce the proofed work.
Don’t worry – there’s lots and lots of wonderful jargon to learn! Catch ’em all and someone may mistake you for a pro. Which you are. Of course.
If you’re a pro photographer or photo enthusiast, it’s likely that you’ve come across a debate about sRGB (standard Red Green Blue) versus Adobe RGB. If not, these names represent different colour spaces for RGB images. Digital cameras generally shoot and save in RGB, versus the CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black) colour space that would be used for typical offset printing. There’s also an extended gamut colour space for offset printing known as CMYKOGV, which adds Orange, Green and Violet to the CMYK space to reach outside of the gamut that can be reached with CMYK alone. There’s no such thing as an RGB offset press. The focus of this article is whether Adobe RGB is preferable over sRGB.
Adobe RGB is a profile developed by Adobe in the very late 1990’s, based on the SMPTE 240m standard. The idea was to include the colour range that then predominately CMYK inkjet printers could reproduce. That colour range could then be displayed accurately on a RGB monitor.
sRGB was developed by HP and Microsoft to profile for various output conditions and released in 1996. sRGB is the default RGB profile for images without an assigned profile.
Despite some significant mis-steps in the creation of the Adobe RGB profile, Adobe included it with Photoshop 5.0. At the time, few to no useful profiles were available, so for Photoshop users, Adobe RGB was, essentially, better than nothing. Because of the development errors, Adobe RGB was not as accurate as sRGB.
Because sRGB became an IEC standard in 1999, all images viewed on the web are sRGB by default. sRGB has a slightly smaller gamut, or the range of colours that it can reproduce) than Adobe RGB. In practice, this difference is too small to make for a deciding factor.
The advantage of the slightly expanded gamut of Adobe RGB is apparent in output on certain types of images BUT the workflow has to take into account that display images on the web will be sRGB. So, it would be necessary to maintain at least two image files for each image, one for the source image in Adobe RGB and a second for web display in sRGB. Using straight Adobe RGB images in a web environment, that is, a web browser, will yield dull and inaccurate colours. Proper conversion of each image is essential.
For the photographer whose images are destined for print, it should be understood that outside output houses may not expect or account for Adobe RGB images in their RIP (Raster Image Processor) workflows. So, the output, assuming the image is being reproduced by inkjet or dye sublimation, will be inaccurate. Also, some output house don’t accept sRGB images at all, which would mean that the photographer dedicated to Adobe RGB would have to add another image to his or her growing library of digital assets – one specifically for output at a given output house. Since time is money, Adobe RGB may be the costlier choice for little, if any, gain.
Modern inkjet and dye sub output devices can reproduce a significant portion of either the sRGB or Adobe RGB spaces, but not the entire space of either as compared to a high-end video monitor. For most purposes, from commerical to fine art output, sRGB is more than sufficient for pleasing and ‘correct’ output and is more likely to be viewable for most of the gamut on a modern monitor or HDMI display, versus Adobe RGB’s 75% reproduction on an sRGB monitor.
So, both colour spaces can yield accurate reproduction but one, sRGB, is practical across more media without jumping through hoops.
The L*a*b* colour space provides coordinates for ALL visible colours, not all of which can be reproduced in other colour spaces. In the illustration shown here, even RGB can’t plot every colour in the visible spectrum and CMYK is the smallest subset of all of the color spaces. Custom-mixed inks, depending on the pigments, are much more flexible but it may not be possible to reproduce on an actual device.
Extended gamut printing goes much farther than ordinary CMYK by using technology to add standards-defined Orange, Green and Violet inks to print with seven colours. So, a deep Reflex Blue that would be impossible for CMYK alone has Violet added to extend the offset or digital printing process. This makes possible the printing of spot colours without having to custom-mix a Pantone colour. It’s also possible to formulate out of CMYK+OGV custom “brand” colours to match specific targets. While this process isn’t suitable for every customer’s needs, it can be a very cost-effective alternative to multiple spot colours. CMYK+OGV techniques can reproduce from 91% to 95% of the Pantone Matching System, within a variance of as little as .08 delta E to as much as 5 delta E, which is the difference between the target colour and the reproduced colour.
For cosmetics clients that are looking to represent skin tones across media, we probably have a reasonable chance of locating the colours in question within a CMYK space and representing those colours fairly in RGB. Since web and print viewing conditions and technology are completely different, direct “matches” between CMYK and RGB are not likely, though it will probably be close enough for practical use as long as it’s disclaimed as such.
To view overprints in Acrobat Reader, Pro or DC, open the source document, navigate to the “Preferences” option in the Acrobat menu. In the window that opens, highlight “Page Display” under “Category” in the left-hand pane. In the right-hand part of the window, locate the option “Use Overprint Preview” and select the option to the right from the drop-down choices, “Always”. Here’s a view of that setting:
Acrobat Pro and DC can “toggle” overprint preview, as well as view separations. For professionals in the printing industry that are viewing artwork for mechanical correctness, this is the correct and recommended way to view that artwork since this is how it will be separated to plates and go to press.
Separations are often mistakenly called “layers.” Layers are just that – different levels in a files that may contain different elements, like images, decoration or other features, placed on these different levels for mechanical reasons. Any number of different colours can exist on a single layer, but only one ink (or varnish or emboss or stamp, and so forth) can exist per separation.
To view separations and overprints in Acrobat Pro or DC, navigate to “Tools” and select and click “Print Production”.
In the pane that opens on the right-hand side of the viewport, select “Output Preview”.
In the Output Preview box that opens, note the option near the top of the window called “Simulate Overprinting”. By alternatively ticking and un-ticking this box, the displayed document will alternate between appearing with and without overprint.
Directly to the right of the “Simulate Overprint” option, Acrobat displays whether or nt overprint is present in the document being previewed. Separations can be toggled on and off by selecting the tick mark next to the colour name in the “Separations” pane on the lower half of the Output Preview window.
If there are layers in the file being viewed, those can be viewed by clicking the right-facing arrow on the left-most edge of the displayport.
Several icons will become visible above the arrow’s location. Click on the icon that looks like layers of sheets of paper.
Whatever layers that are present will appear in the Layers tab that opens. Clicking on the eye icon will turn individual layers on or off.This feature is not meant to check colour separations.
Checking seps should be done ONLY with all layers on, just as the file would be used for production. Otherwise, there is a reasonable chance that an element on a turned-off layer that will interact with the rest of the art in the document when the going to press will not be noticed.
SquareSpace, Weebly and Wix are just three of the dozens of companies offering drag-and-drop web creation. Broadly speaking, the cost ranges from ‘free’, which means a limited set of presentation elements plus an advertising banner on your site (Wix runs banners, SquareSpace does not), perhaps less robust support from the company (support ticket only versus chat, for instance), to $300 and up per year, depending on the level of support, the sophistication of the templates, the amount of bandwidth and storage requirements. E-commerce deployment adds a significant cost dimension.
The interfaces for the three companies I mention here are simple to learn and use and the resulting website looks nice enough. There are limits to site and page customisation. Access to the developer’s platform with SquareSpace requires the higher-priced plans. From there, the stock templates can be customised by editing the CSS (Cascading Style Sheets).
Even so, the site cost is less than $400 a year, all in. So why hire a developer? Easy – time is money. Building a site of any level of complexity takes time.
Let’s say the purpose of a site is to feature a start-up public relations company. The newly-minted CEO signs up, chooses a template, builds a few pages, done, right? Wrong. What about newsletter or e-mail blast integration? Metrics reporting? Social media integration? What about developing effective content to magnetize natural search results? Who will manage these functions for the organisation so that the effort has some tangible, ongoing effect on the development of the brand?
A key role of the developer is to look at what the organisation needs in terms of brand identity and marketing and to suggest an overall strategy that culminates in an effective action plan. In order to remain effective, that plan must be maintain on an ongoing basis and reviewed periodically. That takes time, discipline, knowledge and some experience. In the example of the public relations start-up, who will fulfill that function? The CEO is busy drumming up new clients and managing existng ones to keep the lights on. The marketing/sales/HR/R&D/facilities manager is already wearing a coat-rack full of hats. Realistically, what will happen to the media marketing effort started so valiantly?
A very small company usually doesn’t need a developer, or marketing engineer, as I like to think of the role, on anything like a full-time basis. The level of support an organisation needs in this regard is dependent on what’s being done or made. An intern is not the answer. Sure, a novice with an expensive education should get you the cutting edge in all things media, but that’s just not the case. As a professional in your own area of business, you likely remember how shaky you were until you swept some experience under your belt. Who paid for that experience and for those mistakes? Your employer did back then, but now, you’re the employer and although we’re a few paragraphs further into this article, time is still money. Further, unless you’re experienced in marketing, advertising, content creation, systems analysis and all of the other knowledge and experience that goes into creating a real presence in media for your business, it’s likely you won’t have a clue as to what to look for or what to monitor when your intern or first-timer starts.
So, start with a marketing plan and understand the goals of your web presence further than, “I want to get more business.” Talk to actual web devs who know something about creative, marketing (which is not the same thing) and importantly, research. That’s probably not going to be Tim The IT Guy who runs a Warcraft blog. If your web presence is something more than a marketing vehicle, you’ll need to find developers that can deliver secure web-based applications that work. No, it’s not easy, but if it was, everybody would be doing it. And, in fact, everybody is doing it, just not doing it well. The challenge for the business professional is to be circumspect and humble enough to understand that he or she may not fully understand what’s needed in terms of expertise. Of course, you could hire a analyst like me to uncover your needs, propose unbiased solutions and help to move your plans in the right direction.
Web marketing and application development has matured to an actual discipline that can be very powerful for your business. Don’t sell you business short with a D-I-Y solution that, in all fairness, probably won’t help one little bit.
Adobe’s Flash was once a useful bit of software that web developers and designers could use to create visually compelling content for display in a browser or even as a stand-alone package. Flash lent itself well to game creation, too. But Apple didn’t like it and, as it turns out, Steve was right.
There was a time when you couldn’t load your favourite website because all the menus were written in Flash. The majority of audio and video content was delivered that way, too. The problem was (and is, for those that haven’t disabled Flash plug-ins on their outdated browsers) that Flash could deliver a bit more, like ransom-ware, to the user’s machine. Ransom-ware is a piece of software that when downloaded and run, will encrypt all of the files on a user’s computer and display a notice that demands payment to get a key to unlock the files. Don’t pay up and lose those files – permanently.
To be clear, Flash isn’t to blame for the nasty behaviour of internet criminals, but because of the many security holes exploited by web crooks over time, Flash has garnered a reputation as a significant security risk.
Firefox disables Flash by default. By the last quarter of 2016, Chrome and Safari will do the same. Edge, the Windows 10 browser, automatically pauses content not central to the user’s experience of a visited page. That leaves Internet Explorer as the lone hold out.
It’s easy enough to disable Flash entirely in Edge and Internet Explorer 11.
- Click on the three dots that bring down the menu in the upper right-hand corner of the browser window.
- Select ‘Settings’.
- Scroll down and select ‘View Advanced Settings’ and toggle the switch ‘Use Adobe Flash Player’ to OFF.
In Internet Explorer 11:
- Click the gear in the upper right-hand corner of the browser window.
- Select ‘Manage Add-ons’. On the left-hand pane of the dialogue box that opens, select ‘All add-ons’ next to ‘Show’.
- Find ‘Shockwave Active X Control’ and ‘Shockwave Flash Object’. Highlight each entry and click ‘Disable’ in the lower right-hand corner of the dialogue.
To see if Flash content is enabled in the browser, visit http://www.adobe.com/software/flash/about/. If there is no motion banner celebrating Flash, Flash is disabled.
So, see ‘ya, Flash. It was fun while it lasted, but it’s time to move on. We’ll go after Java next.
When a different font is substituted for a missing font in a client’s file, the replacing font may have different spacing, or kerning, between the characters. This difference will cause differences in how lines break in paragraphs, so a word that appears at the end of a line on the client’s computer may bounce down to the following line, or the word at the beginning of the following line may bounce up to the prior line. Even if the font has the same name, different vintages and versions of fonts can be, and often are, different. Special characters that may have been added to the client’s set of characters, like a Euro symbol or the special E for the euro weight claim won’t be in a standard set of characters necessarily and will be replaced by a ‘wrong’ symbol, like a check mark or a box.
To avoid creating a problem, it’s been a best practice in desktop publishing for the last several decades to deliver files with fonts turned into outlines so that the style and position of the type is locked to how it appeared in the client’s layout environment.
This is very easy to do in Illustrator.
• Open the file in Illustrator.
• From the menu bar, select ‘Select>Object>All Text Objects’
• From the menu bar, select ‘Type>Create Outlines’
• Save As Copy with the same file name, adding “-OL” to the end of the file name to indicate it’s the outlined file.
That’s it. The vendor receiving the file can’t accidentally alter the type because there is no type in the document and fonts issues are gone because there are no fonts in the file. The original layout is untouched should upticks or revisions be needed in the future.
Fine artists that sketch, draw, do engraving, silkscreen or paint have a tougher path to replicating their output than digital artists and photographers. Since the material starts in an analogue form, making a reproduction means creating a digital file that can be used to image the reproduction media.
DIY Solutions Suck
Why not just take a photo? The answer is that all except the highest-end professional cameras don’t match the dMax, or maximum density, that contributes to sought-after ‘good blacks’ and excellent contrast and balance in the digital file. Further, optical distortion introduced by the lens optics of the taking camera will change the image somewhat. It’s possible to compensate for this problem with software, but it’s not an ideal solution since the alterations introduced by the software might be a sticking point for archivists and for purists.
One thing to keep in mind is that there is no utterly exact method of reproduction. There will be some variation from the original that will be detectable. Obviously, this is a good thing on some level. Most fine artists don’t intend to become their generation’s Currier and Ives. Still, for fine artists and their fans, reproduction is a way to own an authorised piece of art that would otherwise be inaccessible.
On the other hand, it is possible for the fine artist to begin the creative process with reproduction in mind. Rather than following the digital route, there are many methods of reproduction, like silkscreen, seriagraph, lithograph, engraving and many other systems that allow for direct, analogue creation of multiple pieces of essentially the same work.
If this is not the intent, the question returns to the process of digital reproduction. There are two methods for acquiring digital files for further production from painting, watercolor and other hand works. Very large format flatbed scanning, very much like a giant copier, only with extreme resolution and precise colour, is the more expensive and more precise method, arguably. The use of a large-format camera, 4×5 inch, usually, with an extremely high-resolution digital back in place of film is the other method. I say ‘arguably’ because the differences are so minute as to become the domain of subjective interpretation. It might be advisable for the artist or his agent to discuss the goal of the capture process with the vendor and do some tests to find if one process is preferable.
Here are links to a number of vendors with good reputations in the industry:
The first company in the list uses large-format scanning and the last company uses a camera method. All of these companies print on a variety of material, like canvas, watercolour and bamboo, but the middle company can make matchprints that are laminated to any surface, including metals and wood.
So far, there’s no way to exactly reproduce a brushstroke or daub, but that’s a good thing. Right?