Art Graphics Trades

Can You Match That Spot In CMYK?

Well, maybe. In an extended gamut world of RGB media interaction, there’s every expectation that nearly every “colour” we see should be reproducible across all mediums. That’s a naive expectation that colour professionals have a obligation to manage. First, the basics:

To simplify this exposition, let’s eliminate screen-viewed media. First of all, colour viewed as transmitted light versus reflected light, as with print media, is a subject all its own. Not only is the viewer’s perception changed by pixel excitation . . . okay – wait a minute with the flowery language. Let’s make this make at least a little sense.

RGB means “Red-Green-Blue” and that’s how colours are made on computer monitors. Little dots of light, or “pixels”, are arranged next to each other in computer displays and depending on how bright each of the pixels are, the eye and brain will understand that to be a certain colour.

CMYK means “Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black” (then why on earth is “K” black, huh? Don’t worry about that right now – printers have a jargon all their own that will be a great topic for later). In printing, those four inks are deposited on paper or plastic, usually, in tiny dots arranged near each other in varying sizes of bigger and smaller dots. When viewed from, say, a foot away, the eye and brain understand the light that’s reflected off the material being printed on as colour.

So far, so good. Now, the way those two systems are different is that RGB can display a much wider range of colours than CMYK. So, a “hot pink” can be displayed on a computer screen, but the CMYK printing process can’t reach those extremes natively. Think of two buckets of ping-pong balls where RGB is the bigger bucket that CMYK’s smaller bucket fits into. Here’s an illustration from Minnesota’s MCAD that shows this relationship very well:

The visible colour gamut is pretty gigantic and the RGB colour gamut or range-map covers a lot of that area. The CMYK ink-printable area is much smaller. So, why not print in RGB? That’s because RGB presses haven’t been invented yet as RGB applies to transmitted light, like in a computer monitor.

As a note, there is a way to increase the ink-printed gamut by adding a few more inks, namely orange, green and violet. But not all shops have the hardware and software and colour knowledge to make this happen. That’s not a knock – most full-colour work at the time of this writing is printed as CMYK, but extended gamut printing has efficiencies in certain circumstances we won’t get into here.

If we want to match a Pantone spot in CMYK, that target has to fall inside of the CMYK gamut. That will give us about 61% or so of the Pantone coated book, not including pastels or metallics. By opting for extended gamut, I’ve been able (and others, too) to get about 91% of the Pantone book.

Since most commercial printers don’t routinely set up for extended gamut, the designer is obliged to work in CMYK for a predictable result since “converting” RGB to CMYK can result in hot, on-screen colours being reduced to flat tones that look nothing like what’s displayed on-screen.

So, what’s the solution? Well, managing expectations is one course but if brand colours are involved, the best, most repeatable route is to specified CMYK for whatever needs to appear that way, like pack shots or complex multi-spot images and custom-mixed spot inks for anything that must match exactly. The benefit is that spot inks can print as solids without tiny dots breaking up the colour and will be much more repeatable product to product and run to run than CMYK process simulations.

Music Biz

CD Duplication Vs. Replication – What’s The Difference?

The Compact Disc came into wide use after its introduction by Phillips in the early 1980s. Compact Disc has been a format that remains popular to this day for music and spoken-word programming despite significant inroads by downloadable formats. The Compact Disc is portable, reasonably resistant to physical wear and represents much higher audio quality than is typical with MP3s or iTunes-stored media.

There are two ways to make media compatible with the Compact Disc standard of playback. One method involves moulding the disc in a factory environment and embedding the pits directly into the molded substrate of the disc which is moulded all at once, aluminizing the disc, then sealing it with lacquer that’s cured with UV light. The other method involves using a laser in a recording device to serially change the state of an area of dye representing pits in a pre-moulded disc known as CD-Recordable. The moulding method is commonly called CD Replication and the recording method is called CD Duplication. The difference in terminology is subtle but meaningful within the industry.

CD duplication is appropriate for short runs. The disc surface can be thermally printed, labeled with a laser-printed (or ink-jet on the very lowest end) label, directly printed with inkjet or silk-screen printed if the cost can be justified. Replicated CDs are usually silk-screen printed and sometimes, if the run is of sufficient size and contains other than spot colours, offset printed. The printing is done with UV-cured inks which are permanent and waterproof.

If the quantity of CDs desired is less than 500 units, duplication is usually the only option. Replicated CDs are inexpensive to manufacture, but the glass master and subsequent metal stamper needed for the injection moulding process is definitely not cheap and makes up the bulk of the cost to the manufacturer.

Considering which format to use is a balance of many factors, not solely economics. The decision to use replication versus duplication is down to finished appearance and the ROI over a given period. For instance, if 500 CDs will be sold over the course of a year, replicated CDs make the most sense in terms of presentation.

On the other hand, if there’s no reasonable certainty as to how many units will be sold during a given time-frame, then duplicated CDs are a sensible solution, since small lots can be produced at a know cost. Finally, if an initial run of CDs did well and a reorder for stock doesn’t justify another 500 piece run, duplicated CDs are a reasonable substitute in a subsequent run for many markets.


Words To Live By

Never pet a burning dog.

Graphics Trades

How Come It’s Not CMYB, Huh?

Like any industry, printing and graphics have developed its own special language meant to keep outsiders away. In this article, I will reveal the secret terminology that, if you study hard, will allow you to pass as someone who knows something about the trade. Heck, it worked for me. Here we go:

CMYK – Perhaps the most ubiquitous term in printing and graphic, CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. Wait, whut? you might rightfully quizzle? Why “K” and not “B” for Black? There are competing theories for the development of this term and both hold a logic that makes good sense. Some say the “K” stands for “key colour”, since on a printing press, each ink is in its own printing unit with all other inks registering or “keying” (get it?) to Black. The other idea is that the letter K is used to avoid confusion with B for Blue, Brown or some other ink that starts with “B”. “K” is the exclusive designation in printing technology for black ink that’s used in four-colour process printing.

LPI, DPI, Pixels, Dots – Oh, my, what big picas you have. I’ve heard non-printers refer to the dots seen in offset printing as pixels. This sort-of makes sense in the way that the dots on a computer display are similar to printed dots in that they represent tone or colour to the human viewing the art. Except that printed dots are much smaller, are not in RGB (video display dots always are), are not in fixed positions in a grid (like on a video monitor) and don’t change the perceived colour by varying intensity of three dots (which is how RGB monitors work). Since there’s no such thing as an RGB printing press, the dots on an offset printed piece vary in size to show more or less of a particular colour, usually arranged in a pattern called a rosette for four-colour printing.

RGB – Red, Green, Blue. These are the colours of the video rainbow. There is no such thing as an RGB press. RGB is a colour mode that is used for digital images that display on a colour monitor or video display device. RGB has a much larger gamut than CMYK, so colours can appear richer and more saturated when viewed in this mode.

Gamut – This is the range of colours that can be reproduced in a given colour systems. CMYK can reproduce about 65% of the Pantone 1000. Add OGV (Orange-Green-Violet) inks and that number goes up to about 90%. So, gamut is the range of reproduction of a given colour system.

Contone – Short for continuous tone, this is a reproduction or display method that has no dots, like in offset printing, where all steps from 100% colour to no colour are fully reproduced without interruption. Most contract proofs today are contone proofs.

Contract Proof – This is a colour-accurate, controlled output proof that a print buyer can view under controlled lighting conditions that can be used as a “target” for printing. The proof represents the ability of the target printing system to reproduce the proofed work.

Don’t worry – there’s lots and lots of wonderful jargon to learn! Catch ’em all and someone may mistake you for a pro. Which you are. Of course.



  • Tires
    Source: ArtProPhoto Published on 2022-04-25
  • Glass Sky
    Source: ArtProPhoto Published on 2022-04-25
  • Chicken Shakes
    Source: ArtProPhoto Published on 2022-04-25
  • Turf
    Source: ArtProPhoto Published on 2022-04-25
  • Trio
    Source: ArtProPhoto Published on 2021-10-29
  • Wisp
    Source: ArtProPhoto Published on 2021-10-29
  • Organic
    Source: ArtProPhoto Published on 2021-10-29
  • Doe B
    Source: ArtProPhoto Published on 2021-10-29
  • Doe A
    Source: ArtProPhoto Published on 2021-10-22
  • Conclave
    Source: ArtProPhoto Published on 2021-10-22

Art Creativity Film Graphics Trades Photography

sRGB versus Adobe RGB

If you’re a pro photographer or photo enthusiast, it’s likely that you’ve come across a debate about sRGB (standard Red Green Blue) versus Adobe RGB. If not, these names represent different colour spaces for RGB images. Digital cameras generally shoot and save in RGB, versus the CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black) colour space that would be used for typical offset printing. There’s also an extended gamut colour space for offset printing known as CMYKOGV, which adds Orange, Green and Violet to the CMYK space to reach outside of the gamut that can be reached with CMYK alone. There’s no such thing as an RGB offset press. The focus of this article is whether Adobe RGB is preferable over sRGB.

Adobe RGB is a profile developed by Adobe in the very late 1990’s, based on the SMPTE 240m standard. The idea was to include the colour range that then predominately CMYK inkjet printers could reproduce. That colour range could then be displayed accurately on a RGB monitor.

sRGB was developed by HP and Microsoft to profile for various output conditions and released in 1996. sRGB is the default RGB profile for images without an assigned profile.

Despite some significant mis-steps in the creation of the Adobe RGB profile, Adobe included it with Photoshop 5.0. At the time, few to no useful profiles were available, so for Photoshop users, Adobe RGB was, essentially, better than nothing. Because of the development errors, Adobe RGB was not as accurate as sRGB.

Because sRGB became an IEC standard in 1999, all images viewed on the web are sRGB by default. sRGB has a slightly smaller gamut, or the range of colours that it can reproduce) than Adobe RGB. In practice, this difference is too small to make for a deciding factor.

The advantage of the slightly expanded gamut of Adobe RGB is apparent in output on certain types of images BUT the workflow has to take into account that display images on the web will be sRGB. So, it would be necessary to maintain at least two image files for each image, one for the source image in Adobe RGB and a second for web display in sRGB. Using straight Adobe RGB images in a web environment, that is, a web browser, will yield dull and inaccurate colours. Proper conversion of each image is essential.

For the photographer whose images are destined for print, it should be understood that outside output houses may not expect or account for Adobe RGB images in their RIP (Raster Image Processor) workflows. So, the output, assuming the image is being reproduced by inkjet or dye sublimation, will be inaccurate. Also, some output house don’t accept sRGB images at all, which would mean that the photographer dedicated to Adobe RGB would have to add another image to his or her growing library of digital assets – one specifically for output at a given output house. Since time is money, Adobe RGB may be the costlier choice for little, if any, gain.

Modern inkjet and dye sub output devices can reproduce a significant portion of either the sRGB or Adobe RGB spaces, but not the entire space of either as compared to a high-end video monitor. For most purposes, from commerical to fine art output, sRGB is more than sufficient for pleasing and ‘correct’ output and is more likely to be viewable for most of the gamut on a modern monitor or HDMI display, versus Adobe RGB’s 75% reproduction on an sRGB monitor.

So, both colour spaces can yield accurate reproduction but one, sRGB, is practical across more media without jumping through hoops.

Creativity Graphics Trades Photography Web

CMYK versus RGB

Not every colour that can be expressed in L*a*b* can be reproduced in either the RGB ranges or “gamut” or as CMYK. This illustration can help to illustrate where the reproducible colour ranges fall:

The L*a*b* colour space provides coordinates for ALL visible colours, not all of which can be reproduced in other colour spaces. In the illustration shown here, even RGB can’t plot every colour in the visible spectrum and CMYK is the smallest subset of all of the color spaces. Custom-mixed inks, depending on the pigments, are much more flexible but it may not be possible to reproduce on an actual device.

Extended gamut printing goes much farther than ordinary CMYK by using technology to add standards-defined Orange, Green and Violet inks to print with seven colours. So, a deep Reflex Blue that would be impossible for CMYK alone has Violet added to extend the offset or digital printing process. This makes possible the printing of spot colours without having to custom-mix a Pantone colour. It’s also possible to formulate out of CMYK+OGV custom “brand” colours to match specific targets. While this process isn’t suitable for every customer’s needs, it can be a very cost-effective alternative to multiple spot colours. CMYK+OGV techniques can reproduce from 91% to 95% of the Pantone Matching System, within a variance of as little as .08 delta E to as much as 5 delta E, which is the difference between the target colour and the reproduced colour.

For cosmetics clients that are looking to represent skin tones across media, we probably have a reasonable chance of locating the colours in question within a CMYK space and representing those colours fairly in RGB. Since web and print viewing conditions and technology are completely different, direct “matches” between CMYK and RGB are not likely, though it will probably be close enough for practical use as long as it’s disclaimed as such.

Art Graphics Trades Technology

Overprint Preview, Layers and Separations in Acrobat Reader, Pro and DC

To view overprints in Acrobat Reader, Pro or DC, open the source document, navigate to the “Preferences” option in the Acrobat menu. In the window that opens, highlight “Page Display” under “Category” in the left-hand pane. In the right-hand part of the window, locate the option “Use Overprint Preview” and select the option to the right from the drop-down choices, “Always”. Here’s a view of that setting:

Acrobat Pro and DC can “toggle” overprint preview, as well as view separations. For professionals in the printing industry that are viewing artwork for mechanical correctness, this is the correct and recommended way to view that artwork since this is how it will be separated to plates and go to press.

Separations are often mistakenly called “layers.” Layers are just that – different levels in a files that may contain different elements, like images, decoration or other features, placed on these different levels for mechanical reasons. Any number of different colours can exist on a single layer, but only one ink (or varnish or emboss or stamp, and so forth) can exist per separation.

To view separations and overprints in Acrobat Pro or DC, navigate to “Tools” and select and click “Print Production”.

In the pane that opens on the right-hand side of the viewport, select “Output Preview”.

In the Output Preview box that opens, note the option near the top of the window called “Simulate Overprinting”. By alternatively ticking and un-ticking this box, the displayed document will alternate between appearing with and without overprint.

Directly to the right of the “Simulate Overprint” option, Acrobat displays whether or nt overprint is present in the document being previewed. Separations can be toggled on and off by selecting the tick mark next to the colour name in the “Separations” pane on the lower half of the Output Preview window.

If there are layers in the file being viewed, those can be viewed by clicking the right-facing arrow on the left-most edge of the displayport. 

Several icons will become visible above the arrow’s location. Click on the icon that looks like layers of sheets of paper.

Whatever layers that are present will appear in the Layers tab that opens. Clicking on the eye icon will turn individual layers on or off.This feature is not meant to check colour separations.

Checking seps should be done ONLY with all layers on, just as the file would be used for production. Otherwise, there is a reasonable chance that an element on a turned-off layer that will interact with the rest of the art in the document when the going to press will not be noticed.

Business Computing Web

DIY Web and Why It’s Not For Everyone

SquareSpace, Weebly and Wix are just three of the dozens of companies offering drag-and-drop web creation. Broadly speaking, the cost ranges from ‘free’, which means a limited set of presentation elements plus an advertising banner on your site (Wix runs banners, SquareSpace does not), perhaps less robust support from the company (support ticket only versus chat, for instance), to $300 and up per year, depending on the level of support, the sophistication of the templates, the amount of bandwidth and storage requirements. E-commerce deployment adds a significant cost dimension.

The interfaces for the three companies I mention here are simple to learn and use and the resulting website looks nice enough. There are limits to site and page customisation. Access to the developer’s platform with SquareSpace requires the higher-priced plans. From there, the stock templates can be customised by editing the CSS (Cascading Style Sheets).

Even so, the site cost is less than $400 a year, all in. So why hire a developer? Easy – time is money. Building a site of any level of complexity takes time.

Let’s say the purpose of a site is to feature a start-up public relations company. The newly-minted CEO signs up, chooses a template, builds a few pages, done, right? Wrong. What about newsletter or e-mail blast integration? Metrics reporting? Social media integration? What about developing effective content to magnetize natural search results? Who will manage these functions for the organisation so that the effort has some tangible, ongoing effect on the development of the brand?

A key role of the developer is to look at what the organisation needs in terms of brand identity and marketing and to suggest an overall strategy that culminates in an effective action plan. In order to remain effective, that plan must be maintain on an ongoing basis and reviewed periodically. That takes time, discipline, knowledge and some experience. In the example of the public relations start-up, who will fulfill that function? The CEO is busy drumming up new clients and managing existng ones to keep the lights on. The marketing/sales/HR/R&D/facilities manager is already wearing a coat-rack full of hats. Realistically, what will happen to the media marketing effort started so valiantly?

A very small company usually doesn’t need a developer, or marketing engineer, as I like to think of the role, on anything like a full-time basis. The level of support an organisation needs in this regard is dependent on what’s being done or made. An intern is not the answer. Sure, a novice with an expensive education should get you the cutting edge in all things media, but that’s just not the case. As a professional in your own area of business, you likely remember how shaky you were until you swept some experience under your belt. Who paid for that experience and for those mistakes? Your employer did back then, but now, you’re the employer and although we’re a few paragraphs further into this article, time is still money. Further, unless you’re experienced in marketing, advertising, content creation, systems analysis and all of the other knowledge and experience that goes into creating a real presence in media for your business, it’s likely you won’t have a clue as to what to look for or what to monitor when your intern or first-timer starts.

So, start with a marketing plan and understand the goals of your web presence further than, “I want to get more business.” Talk to actual web devs who know something about creative, marketing (which is not the same thing) and importantly, research. That’s probably not going to be Tim The IT Guy who runs a Warcraft blog. If your web presence is something more than a marketing vehicle, you’ll need to find developers that can deliver secure web-based applications that work. No, it’s not easy, but if it was, everybody would be doing it. And, in fact, everybody is doing it, just not doing it well. The challenge for the business professional is to be circumspect and humble enough to understand that he or she may not fully understand what’s needed in terms of expertise. Of course, you could hire a analyst like me to uncover your needs, propose unbiased solutions and help to move your plans in the right direction.

Web marketing and application development has matured to an actual discipline that can be very powerful for your business. Don’t sell you business short with a D-I-Y solution that, in all fairness, probably won’t help one little bit.



Computing Web

Flash Is Dead. Long Live Anything Else, Except Java

stop_signAdobe’s Flash was once a useful bit of software that web developers and designers could use to create visually compelling content for display in a browser or even as a stand-alone package. Flash lent itself well to game creation, too. But Apple didn’t like it and, as it turns out, Steve was right.

There was a time when you couldn’t load your favourite website because all the menus were written in Flash. The majority of audio and video content was delivered that way, too. The problem was (and is, for those that haven’t disabled Flash plug-ins on their outdated browsers) that Flash could deliver a bit more, like ransom-ware, to the user’s machine. Ransom-ware is a piece of software that when downloaded and run, will encrypt all of the files on a user’s computer and display a notice that demands payment to get a key to unlock the files. Don’t pay up and lose those files – permanently.

To be clear, Flash isn’t to blame for the nasty behaviour of internet criminals, but because of the many security holes exploited by web crooks over time, Flash has garnered a reputation as a significant security risk.

Firefox disables Flash by default. By the last quarter of 2016, Chrome and Safari will do the same. Edge, the Windows 10 browser, automatically pauses content not central to the user’s experience of a visited page. That leaves Internet Explorer as the lone hold out.

It’s easy enough to disable Flash entirely in Edge and Internet Explorer 11.

In Edge:

  • Click on the three dots that bring down the menu in the upper right-hand corner of the browser window.
  • Select ‘Settings’.
  • Scroll down and select ‘View Advanced Settings’  and toggle the switch ‘Use Adobe Flash Player’ to OFF.

In Internet Explorer 11:

  • Click the gear in the upper right-hand corner of the browser window.
  • Select ‘Manage Add-ons’. On the left-hand pane of the dialogue box that opens, select ‘All add-ons’ next to ‘Show’.
  • Find ‘Shockwave Active X Control’ and ‘Shockwave Flash Object’. Highlight each entry and click ‘Disable’ in the lower right-hand corner of the dialogue.

To see if Flash content is enabled in the browser, visit If there is no motion banner celebrating Flash, Flash is disabled.

So, see ‘ya, Flash. It was fun while it lasted, but it’s time to move on. We’ll go after Java next.